„The Crossing Machine is a mind tool conceived to stimulate the creation of new publishing artifacts. The main purpose of the project is to investigate technologies and publishing from a post-digital perspective and to propose new methodologies for producing self-reflective works.“
„THE CRITICAL INTERFACE TOOLBOX unfolds as an online resource that exposes experimental methodologies, practices, and tools aimed at enhancing critical thought towards the actual configuration of the Interface.“
Manifesto for a critical approach to the user interface
„Unfold is an online publishing and archiving platform based upon the structure of the digital folder.“
„The Readers Project is a collection of distributed, performative, quasi-autonomous poetic ‚readers‘ — active, procedural entities with distinct reading behaviors and strategies. […] Each reader follows traces of linguistic and poetic structure — symbolic idealities — that define their specific focus of attention. Since the their behaviors are derived from a necessarily partial, aesthetically implicated analysis of human reading, they explore and reveal certain contours and outlines of linguistic materiality’s ‚other dimensions‘, in work that we propose to be significant, affective, and literary.“
„Objectifier empowers people to train objects in their daily environment to respond to their unique behaviors. It gives an experience of training an artificial intelligence; a shift from a passive consumer to an active, playful director of domestic technology.“
„Land Lines is an experiment that lets you explore Google Earth satellite imagery through gesture. “Draw” to find satellite images that match your every line; “Drag” to create an infinite line of connected rivers, highways and coastlines.“
„Socratic Search is a speculative search engine based upon the principles of Socractic Questioning, and built on Google Custom Search technology. Replacing a single search button with multiple search options. It’s aim is to guide users into a deeper, more disciplined ways of questioning the worlds information that Google organises and returns to us every day.“
„A workshop and ongoing research project which uses Sir John Soane’s unrealised architectural speculation ‚Design for an Entrance to London‘ (c 1805) as a means to reimagine how we directly access and perceive the internet as the modern equivalent to the living organism of a city. The workshop questions how we might do this in a way that more critically considers the role access to the internet plays in authoring our interpretation of reality, our shared values, our social potential and human evolution.“
„Contra-Internet engages the emerging militancies and subversions of “the Internet,” such as the global proliferation of autonomous mesh networks, encryption tactics, and darknets. Contra-Internet aims to function as a conceptual, practical, and experimental framework for refusing the neoliberal logic of “the Internet” while building alternatives to its infrastructure.“
„The Jupyter Notebook is a web application that allows you to create and share documents that contain live code, equations, visualizations and explanatory text.“
„Still File is a series of 4 photographs recreating computer renderings as physical scenes. The photos‘ artifacts, surroundings, camera settings and lighting has been shaped intending to resemble 3d graphics of different types.“
A twitter-bot auto-generating imaginary maps.
Writing environment with strong focus on structure.
A computer system with text-based interface and some ideosyncratic tweaks developed by Raskin aimed at high efficiency and convenience. He elaborates on his approach in his „Humane Interface“ book. Most notably the LEAP function, a way to quickly navigate around documents, that also introduced the dedicated LEAP buttons on the CanonCat’s keyboard.
CanonCat demo video
Promo video for the LEAP technology
One of the first constraint-oriented simulation programs.
„… is a hybrid graphics editor and programming environment for creating interactive diagrams.“
„The aim of the “Critical Atlas of Internet” is to use spatial analysis as a key to understanding social, political and economic issues on Internet.“
„… a series of objects presenting a playful interpretation take on the concept of the smart home.“
Group project to develop a new software system based on Doug Engelbart’s ideas for the 50th anniversary of the demo of 1968.
„Soylent is a crowd-powered interface: one that embeds workers from Mechanical Turk into Microsoft Word.“
„… is quite simply, a computer system that gives objects names.“
„A visual search tool for satellite imagery“
„It is an apparatus, that sorts pebbles from a specific river by their geologic age.“
„Schema.org is a collaborative, community activity with a mission to create, maintain, and promote schemas for structured data on the Internet, on web pages, in email messages, and beyond.“
„The project aims to re-invent the traditional reading interface for digital humanity scholars based on Jerome McGann’s idea: a “dynamic space that can be organized in an indefinite number of perspectives.” The idea is that the reader will be able to „wander“ through a field of text content, and by taking different perspective to view this field of content, derive different threads of argumentation.“
Early spreadsheet software, to be considered the first „killer app“ for Personal Computing and the first application that convinced people to invest in whole systems (the Apple II). First software that went through a whole software career cycle, until its decline fueled by competitor „Lotus 1-2-3“. Also notable for its good documentation at that time.
1965, Side-by-side connected comparison of parallel documents
1972, Transpointing windows
1999, PYXI viewer by Ka-Ping Yee
2014, OpenXanadu by Ted Nelson and Nicholas Levin
Parallel documents / Transpointing windows
Deep versioning and re-use (transclusion)
JS implementation of Stretchtext
ZigZag database system
„It utilizes the ability of computers to comprehend semantic meaning via „common-sense networks“ to poetically represent the socio-cultural effects of natural language processing.“
Wiki on digital forensics (also known as computer forensics).
A Hardware Controller for InDesign
„Grey Media produce the working environment of administrators, professionals, delivery operatives and arranges the movements and work-arounds of everyone from chief executives to intellectuals or cleaners. They are the background to contemporary society. Using them, getting round their failures, exploiting their specific qualities, forms part of the necessary knowledge of the present day. These things mediate, transform, encode, filter and translate relations.“
„A portrait ‚drawing‘ machine at a shopping mall is made to create his own portrait by placing a mirror in the portrait booth.“
And other projects:
„These source images were randomly grouped and digitally merged with a Photomerge script inside Adobe Photoshop. The script is a common algorithm used to stitch separate images together into longer panoramas. In the case of “Iconoclashes,” the script attempts to blend these “God”-tagged images together, creating chimeric deities, hybrid talismans, and surreal stellae, gods and statues.“
„Entropy is a programming language about giving up control. All data decays as the program runs: each value alters slightly every time it’s used, becoming less precise.“
Also „New Languages“
„If completed, it would contain every possible combination of 1,312,000 characters, including lower case letters, space, comma, and period. Thus, it would contain every book that ever has been written, and every book that ever could be – including every play, every song, every scientific paper, every legal decision, every constitution, every piece of scripture, and so on. At present it contains all possible pages of 3200 characters, about 104677 books.“
Also, the principle applied to image data:
Web framework to link contents from different online services together.
„How can Micro Visualisations enhance text comprehension, memorability, and exploitation?“
„Through this project, measuring becomes something without numbers, but with accurate precision; measuring becomes making.“
„…I designed prepositiontools to explore the potential of grammatical prepositions to analyse, ideate and materialise design proposals…“
Fidelity and minimal latency as the thresholds for analogueness of digital media?
„Rulers of altered length were distributed to professionals.“
And similar projects.
„1. These rulers are not timelines themselves.
2. These rulers are timeline makers.“
„The adversaria of Google Books: captured mark of the hand and digitization as rephotography.“
Visualization of real-time satellite movement patterns on paper maps.
Spaces created by stitched-together video materials from different places. Other works by the artist also experiment with space-time composites.
Url animations with simple editor.
Interactive tool/piece that visualizes editing processes on text archives (Wikipedia articles in this case).
Nice blog about medieval book culture and reading practices. Especially interesting for example a post about bookmarking techniques.
„The objective of allRGB is simple: To create images with one pixel for every RGB color (16777216); not one color missing, and not one color twice.“
„Reflecting eighteenth century antiquarian approaches to place, which included history, folklore, natural history and hearsay, the deep map attempts to record and represent the grain and patina of place through juxtapositions and interpenetrations of the historical and the contemporary, the political and the poetic, the discursive and the sensual; the conflation of oral testimony, anthology, memoir, biography, natural history and everything you might ever want to say about a place …“
Wireless sensor stickers for context aware applications. Considering the fundamental messiness of infrastructures and the procedural simplicity of the functional programming I imagine some interesting side effects if these things move around unintentionally, become trash and create a messy hyper-context, where you loose sight of what reacts to what. Maybe a question of context-aware ubiquitous applications in general.
„Scream sits quietly in your computer’s system tray and automatically springs into action when it detects a scream. Scream disturbs your Windows interface. […] When your throat gets tired, Scream can double as an unusual music visualizer – or as a new approach to desktop filmmaking. Use Scream to start a meme. Or simply as a random act of deprogramming.“
„This project investigates the idea of using computation to “use up” a piece of technology, in this case a digital camera. Using custom-written software (and a very long period of time), every possible photograph is generated, one at a time and in numerical order.“
See also his other projects exploring ideas of technical images, algorithms, abstraction, and computational vision.
„A family of household appliances that presents a future scenario in which users are actively involved in producing, repairing, and modifying their own products.“
Course at the Harvard Graduate School of Design on designing interventions for the library.
Concept for an app that helps to avoid awkward situations by generating phantom phone calls. An ambivalent approach for technical support in social ambiguous situations?
„Three distinct algorithms have been created – each adhering to a specific ethical principle/behaviour set-up – and embedded into driverless virtual cars that are operating in a simulated environment, where they will be confronted with ethical dilemmas.“
Crowd-sourced rule-based hand-drawn frame-by-frame animations.
Digital instrument with a unique and potentially very intuitive analogue interface.
Talk demonstrating the concept and prototype of a software tool for creating parameterized graphics. Blend of programming and graphics.
„Things that contain other things. Things on three legs. Things we don’t know anything about. Things with teeth.“
„Telephony allows gallery visitors to dial into a wall based grid of 42 Siemens mobile telephones, which in turn begin to call each other and create a piece of ‚music.'“
See also other projects of the artists.
„We worry about the imaginary, supplemental alphabets starting with letter twenty-seven. This is the impulse behind our notes for a liberated computer language, to re-introduce new noisy alphabets into the rigid semantic zone of informatic networks. […] We consider there to be little difference between living informatic networks and the universal informatic languages and standards used to define and sculpt them. If the languages are finite, then so, unfortunately, are the life possibilities. Thus a new type of language is needed, a liberated computer language for the articulation of political desires in today’s hostile climate of universal informatics.“ („The Exploit: A Theory of Networks“)
Poetic kinetic objects of order and disorder.
Free journal for culture and theory.
„… camera and monitor function as a mirror that links the images of the viewers. […] The software, which runs between camera and monitor, attempts to re-construct each face from image fragments of the other. The image of one face cannot be realised without the other and vice versa.
See also other works about materiality, aesthetics and potential of digital technologies:
Online magazine featuring essays and visual examples more or less dealing with diagrams and poetics.
Machine generates shapes and tries to recursively imitate them, creating an endless process of effort due to the inevitable tolerances.
„Commonplace Books“ – organised notebooks – as technology of „Personal Knowledge Management“ since 15th century. How can diverse fragments of knowledge be recorded and organised in a way to reliably recover them and at the same time stimulate creative recombinations?
Uses materials and visual language out of the context of the office (printer, paper, pens, excel) for reduced works, playing with order, repetition, patience.
Grids, space structures, distortions, errors
„We believe in the joy of metering. It is enlightening and highly reassuring, also fun.“
…is comprised of over 2,000 voice recordings collected via Amazon’s Mechanical Turk web service.
Questions digital tools in the design process, relationship human and machine, freedom and limitations. She designes systems with defined limits and rules to create space for unexpected things (Conditional Design Collective).
Other topics: creation of own digital tools, co-design with algorithms, man-machine-friction/-adaption, productive glitch and space for imperfection in digital technologies.
http://poly-luna.com (see interview e.g.)
„New image file formats for artistic purpose.“
The names of the victims of the terror attack on the memorial site are ordered with the help of custom software by their relationships (family, friends, colleagues together). Relatives could influence the final layout. The arrangement should reconstruct the „social net“ of the victims.
Collaborative online development of animations with alternative narrative paths. Tree as interface metaphor.
Deals with temporal orders, calendars and subjective counting systems in her graphical works.
Multiplicity of shapes and artifacts by combination, iteration, repetition.
„…combinations of image and text from different authors, linked by a place on earth – fragments of a collective local memory.“
A trading algorithm based on superstition (moon phases, numerology). An objectively subjective apparatus.
„The Petabyte Age is different because more is different. Kilobytes were stored on floppy disks. Megabytes were stored on hard disks. Terabytes were stored in disk arrays. Petabytes are stored in the cloud. As we moved along that progression, we went from the folder analogy to the file cabinet analogy to the library analogy to — well, at petabytes we ran out of organizational analogies.
This is a world where massive amounts of data and applied mathematics replace every other tool that might be brought to bear. Out with every theory of human behavior, from linguistics to sociology. Forget taxonomy, ontology, and psychology. Who knows why people do what they do? The point is they do it, and we can track and measure it with unprecedented fidelity. With enough data, the numbers speak for themselves.“
„The End of Theory“, Chris Anderson in WIRED (+ weitere Kurzartikel zum Thema)
„…explores the possibility of a modular construction model where everyone designs for everyone on the basis of one shared geometrical grid.“
The need of a rigidly defined, universal, modular order for enabling collaborative and open source development.
It is „a joke about the meter,“ Duchamp glibly noted about this piece, but his premise for it reads like a theorem: „If a straight horizontal thread one meter long falls from a height of one meter onto a horizontal plane twisting as it pleases[it] creates a new image of the unit of length.“ Duchamp dropped three threads one meter long from the height of one meter onto three stretched canvases. The threads were then adhered to the canvases to preserve the random curves they assumed upon landing. The canvases were cut along the threads‘ profiles, creating a template of their curves creating new units of measure that retain the length of the meter but undermine its rational basis.
„Das Memoseum ist eine dynamische Sammlung des Erinnerns und des Vergessens, im ständigen Prozess der Erweiterung.“
„This book contains the first Google image result for every word in the dictionary.“
Digital image atlas following ideas of Aby Warburg and Walter Benjamin, focused on objects of non-western culture. Not very rich of material.
„…for the display an open number of artifacts, objects and positions that may enter via an edited matrix of attributes into variable, unpredictable, and dynamic relations with each other.“
„All the words from Michel Foucault’s The Order of Things: An Archaelogy of the Human Sciences in alphabetical order.“
World map with washed out geography.
Book and website with essays about future forms of reading. Free to read online.
„A myriahedron is a polyhedron with a very large number of faces. For this reason, we call the results myriahedral projections. In step 2 and 3, this myriahedron is cut open and unfolded. The resulting maps have a large number of interrupts, but are (almost) conformal and conserve areas.“
MIT project to develop a collection (a „hypergraph“) of „Common Sense Knowledge“. „To improve computers‘ understanding of the world that people live in and talk about, we need to provide them with usable knowledge about the basic relationships between things that nearly every person knows.“ The data set is free to download and explorable online.
Research project about the possible role of networked images in the sciences. A system to assamble, categorise, annotate and link images wants to explore new forms of working with images in other scientific contexts than in art history. Some examples on the website.
Lang explores in historical reference to Goethe and Constable cloud phenomena as artistic commentary and the question of presentability. For example his „idealized“ phantom images of clouds he did with help of the „identikit machine“ of the BKA or his „Cloud Walks“.
The camera produces no image but a textual description of the motive, written by some strange user of Mechanical Turk web service.
„Each of the components of The Serendipity Engine will highlight problems observed by digital theorists, designers and technologists with the way the Web currently works – linguistic barriers, echo chambers – by proposing one vision of how the technology can be re-tooled to increase serendipitous encounters.“
„[…] the aim is to render visible other factors that could produce more inclusive digital technologies that better-represent being human in code.“
“[…] render visible the labour of knowledge making.”
Translates barcodes in output signals on an array of power sockets, where you can connect all kinds of electronical devices.
Labov investigated the borders of words and concepts and the working of categorization in everyday communication. In a study drawings of „containers“ with different formal characteristics where shown to participants. They had to assign them with either „cup“, „bowl“ or „vase“. The decision gradually changed when they where asked to imagine the object filled with flowers or mashed potatoes for example. The categorization seems to be context dependent and fuzzy. Prototype theory in general states that we imagine categories of things around a strong member or representative of the category. It often refers to Wittgenstein’s concept of „Familienähnlichkeit“ (family likeness).
Maps as material for deconstruction and recombination.
Let’s focus is an example for a bunch of visualization tools, that should streamline and raise efficiency of communication processes in the context of management and business. The improved productivity is proofed with scientific studies (see Prof. Martin Eppler). The tool is interesting as it provides a set of (partly weird) visual metaphors that want to enable people without special „visual competence“ to take structured notes of meetings e.g. Maybe the tendency to formalize and exploit a kind of visual thinking / diagrammatic reasoning for means of productivity.
A more complex diagram of evolutionary relations.
Theoretical occupation with diagrams, forms of order, forms of thinking and transformation in own diagrams.
„Formfragen als Ordnugsfragen“ (PDF)
Video artists, deal with space, body, objects, interaction, colour, composition in short and ironic video pieces. Works arranged lexical on their website.
Generative compositing technique. Different moments in time composed in a video grid.
Collection of products exhibiting errors in the production process.
Portraits composed out of layers of photographs that where taken over a period of three minutes.
Blow-up is a high resolution interactive display that is designed to fragment a surveillance camera view into 2400 virtual cameras that zoom into the exhibition space in fluid and autonomous motion. Inspired by Antonioni, the piece is intended as a an exercise to underline the construction of presence through a simulated, live compound eye.
See also other projects:
Workshop and symposium about alternative structures of order, especially in the context of the unique library in Sitterwerk. The books there are always located by RFID technology. Users have the freedom to create associative orders in the bookshelves while at the same time every item is digitally trackable. How can hidden relations made visible and other interactions with the material be enabled.
A collection of 250 situations / scenarios / pattern of problems in architecture and urban planning. Images, texts and diagrams explain each situation and propose solutions. Structured in three parts from macro to micro (towns, buildings, construction). Meant as an instruction of modular solutions with the effort to enable more lively, integrated and beautiful architecture.
Digitally augmented room filled with algorithmically evolving graphical „life forms“. Interesting arrangement and atmosphere.
„A matrix of nearly 80 adapter bricks that enable complete interoperability between ten popular children’s construction toys. By allowing any piece to join to any other, the Kit encourages totally new forms of intercourse between otherwise closed systems—enabling radically hybrid constructive play, the creation of previously impossible designs.“
Uses diagrams to map subjective and „non-expert“ forms of knowledge.
Alexander Gerner in „Diagrammatic Thinking“ in „Atlas of Transformation“
1 + 3 + 5 + … + (2n − 1) = n^2
Diagrams and their potential to make mathematical relations evidently visible, to proof them solely (previous knowledge assumed) by visual means.
Multiplied photographs used as a method to constitute „deviant“ social groups in the 19th century. Francis Galton for example tried to construct visual evidence of universal physiognomic characteristics of jewish or criminally accused people to argue for his problematic theory of inheritance. Visual methods are exploited to construct and affirm a social order.
Graduation project about cartographic projection methods.
Artistic and subjective diagrams, known from the „Atlas of Transformation“.
„A-Z/ A=A (s. Identität) kreist um Bilder als Denkfiguren, die Theorien transportieren und Begriffsfelder konstruieren. 136 Bildtafeln versammeln Motive verschiedenartiger Herkunft zu Konstellationen, die auf Momente von Wiederholung, Assoziation, Vergleich, Repräsentation und Referenz bauen und die die Wandelbarkeit der Lesart eines einzelnen Bildes in Abhängigkeit von seinem jeweiligen Kontext demonstrieren. Gegliedert wird das Buch durch 180 Begriffe, die am Kopf jeder Seite stehen und die auf separaten alphabetisch geordneten Seiten erläutert werden. Die Begriffe werden nicht allgemeingültig definiert – vielmehr wird der Versuch unternommen, die Begriffe durch die Kombination einzelner möglicher Bedeutungsaspekte neu zu konzipieren.“
„My work investigates problems related to order. In a reality that is constantly leaking over the borders of comprehension, the attempt to establish an order has to result in a struggle, that is both hilarious and tragic.
Most works evolve around game structures. A game accommodates regulative order alongside euphoric disarray.“
Technological intervention to „disorder“ communication („Miscommunication Technologies“) to gain more quality of communication. The service randomly connects two registered members of a community by phone to successively spread a message in the group.
In his essay Alexander distinguishes to structural principles, the rigid „tree“ and the „semilattice“, that allows for intersections between elements. He argues that people tend to reduce complex issues conceptually on trees, that it’s even impossible to think in the „semilattice“. He is concerned about the dangers of this conceptual reduction he also sees in architecture and design projects.
Part 1, Part 2
Documentary photography from Russia in early 20th century. Three separate black and white layers enable color images. They exhibit how our perception or imagination of the past is shaped by black and white photography.
„Wenn es aber Wirklichkeitssinn gibt, und niemand wird bezweifeln, daß er seine Daseinsberechtigung hat, dann muß es auch etwas geben, das man Möglichkeitssinn nennen kann. Wer ihn besitzt, sagt beispielsweise nicht: Hier ist dies oder das geschehen, wird geschehen, muß geschehen; sondern er erfindet: Hier könnte, sollte oder müßte geschehn; und wenn man ihm von irgend etwas erklärt, daß es so sei, wie es sei, dann denkt er: Nun, es könnte wahrscheinlich auch anders sein. So ließe sich der Möglichkeitssinn geradezu als die Fähigkeit definieren, alles, was ebensogut sein könnte, zu denken und das, was ist, nicht wichtiger zu nehmen als das, was nicht ist.“
Aus „Der Mann ohne Eigenschaften“, 1952
Project about the library of the Rietveld University, working with some own orders.
Systematization of the design of national flags generates a multiplicity of speculative national identities.
„die Tiere, die sich wie folgt gruppieren:
a) Tiere, die dem Kaiser gehören,
b) einbalsamierte Tiere,
g) herrenlose Hunde,
h) in diese Gruppierung gehörige,
i) die sich wie Tolle gebärden,
k) die mit einem ganz feinen Pinsel aus Kamelhaar gezeichnet sind,
l) und so weiter,
m) die den Wasserkrug zerbrochen haben,
n) die von weitem wie Fliegen aussehen“
Aus „Die analytische Sprache des John Wilkins“, 1966
Zitiert im Vorwort zu Foucaults „Die Ordnung der Dinge“, 1974
„Something about how maps can reveal everyday practices of power.“ Some examples of critical projections and mapping techniques.
Illustrations to „A Thousand Plateaus“ by Deleuze/Guattari. As „means of understanding of the ideas presented in the book“.
A visual system to encode narrative parameters of novels as cover designs.
Photography project. Constructs ironic categorizations of people by their fashion styles.
Uses elements of maps and geographical images as material for recontextualisations and alternative visual sorting.
Artistic transformation and reinterpretation of maps.
Collection of heterogenous, subjective Stories about errors. Uses a dysfunctional order leading to repetition/redundancy.
Tool for drawing with tagged video content to create a dynamic networked image.
The installation tries to simulate and visualize the process of memory by algorithmically combining visual material from newsfeeds.
Opulent drawings in visual rhetoric of diagrams. Exhausting examination of diagrams and the display of complexities, expression of personal experiences. She talks about it as philosophic-cognitive and at the same time bodily-intensive activity but not mainly aesthetic. Website with a lot of works and good texts.
Artistic diagrams in reference to philosophical topics. Aesthetic of structure and diagrams that should not create the impression of clarity.
Documentary photo series, each consisting of a narrative text, a diagrammatic layout of the photographs and additional visual artifacts, creating a very graphical and contemplative appearance.
Explores the visuality and visual consequences of power relations and laws.
„OSP (Open Source Publishing) is a graphic design collective that uses only Free, Libre and Open Source Software. Closely affiliated with the Brussels based foundation for art and media Constant, OSP aims to test the possibilities and realities of doing design, illustration, cartography and typography using a range of F/LOSS tools.
Since 2006, we investigate the potential of F/LOSS in a professional design environment. We do not expect to find (or offer!) the same experience as the ones we are used to. In fact, we are interested in experimenting with everything that shows up in the cracks.“
Strong usage of generative techniques and self made tools in graphic design projects. Co-responsible for Scriptographer.
„Es wird gespielt, getrickst und getan — und zwar mit allerhand Werkzeug. Wann wird aus einem Gestalter ein Ingenieur der nur auf Grund seiner Apparaturen, Erfindungen und Kniffe ein Versprechen auf Individualität abgeben kann? Ist die Herstellung einer Maschine, einer definierten Herangehensweise der konzeptionelle Befreiungsschlag gegen eine glattgedachte Allgemeingestaltung? Oder ist sie bloss ein Kunstgriff um sich aus der Verantwortung zu stehlen? Sind Gestalter moderne Alchimisten? Wie kritisch auch immer man sich diesem Thema nähern mag, unbestritten bleibt, dass diese Toys, Tricks und Tools eine Faszination ausstrahlen die weit über die simple Stilsicherheitsfrage hinausreichen.“
Develop tools for non-linear text production, information search and new forms of knowledge organization. They experiment with interface concepts and ways of associating information to enable new forms of dealing with knowledge, often especially personal knowledge systems.
Visual essays as methods for enquiring topics. Categorization of visual material as an aesthetic approach to an issue, interfaces of design and ethnography?
Cross Section (PDF)
Algorithmically extracted and combined elements of architectural photographs creates new images/interpretations of spaces.